Automating processes with
- A computer running Rocky Linux
- Some comfort with modifying configuration files from the command-line by using your favorite editor (using
- Basic knowledge of bash, python, or other scripting or programming tools, and you want to have a script run automatically
- That you are running as the root user or have the ability to
(You can run certain scripts in your own directories as your own user. In this case, switching to root is not necessary.)
Linux provides the cron system, a time-based job scheduler, for automating processes. It is simplistic and yet quite powerful. Want a script or program to run every day at 5 PM? This is where you set that up.
The crontab is essentially a list where users add their own automated tasks and jobs, and it has many options that can simplify things even further. This document will explore some of these. It is a good refresher for those with some experience, and new users can add the
cron system to their toolbox.
Discussed briefly here is
anacron in reference to the
cron "dot" directories.
cron runs by
anacron, and is helpful for machines that are not up all the time, such as workstations and notebooks. The reason for this is that while
cron runs jobs on a schedule, if the machine is off at the scheduled job time, the job does not run. With
anacron the job will run when the machine is on again, even if the scheduled run was in the past.
anacron though, uses a more randomized approach to running tasks where the timing is not exact. This makes sense for workstations and notebooks, but not for servers. This can be a problem for things such as server backups, for instance, needing to run a job at a specific time. That is where
cron provides the best solution for server administrators. Still, server administrators and workstation or notebook users can gain something from both approaches. You can mix and match based on your needs. For more on
anacron see anacron - Automating commands.
Starting easy - the
cron dot directories¶
Built into every Linux system for many versions now, the
cron "dot" directories help to automate processes quickly. These show up as directories that the
cron system calls based on their naming conventions. These run differently, however, based on the process assigned to call them,
cron. The default behavior is to use
anacron, but this is changeable by a server, workstation or notebook administrator.
As stated in the introduction,
cron normally runs
anacron these days to run scripts in these "dot" directories. You may want to use these "dot" directories on servers as well, and if that is the case, it requires two steps to verify that these "dot" directories run on a strict schedule. To do this, you need to install a package and remove another one:
dnf install cronie-noanacron
dnf remove cronie-anacron
As you might expect, this removes
anacron from the server and reverts to running tasks within the "dot" directories on a strict schedule.
/etc/cron.d/dailyjobs is the file that controls the schedule, which has the following contents:
# Run the daily, weekly, and monthly jobs if cronie-anacron is not installed
02 4 * * * root [ ! -f /etc/cron.hourly/0anacron ] && run-parts /etc/cron.daily
22 4 * * 0 root [ ! -f /etc/cron.hourly/0anacron ] && run-parts /etc/cron.weekly
42 4 1 * * root [ ! -f /etc/cron.hourly/0anacron ] && run-parts /etc/cron.monthly
This translates to the following:
- run scripts in
cron.dailyat 04:02:00 every day.
- run scripts in
cron.weeklyat 04:22:00 on Sunday every week.
- run scripts in
cron.monthlyat 04:42:00 on the first day of every month.
If you want to run scripts on a workstation or notebook in the
cron "dot" directories, you need not do anything complicated. Copy your script file into the directory in question, and ensure it is executable. Here are the directories:
/etc/cron.hourly- Scripts placed here will run one minute past the hour every hour (run by
cronregardless of whether
anacronexists or not)
/etc/cron.daily- Scripts placed here will run every day.
anacronadjusts the timing of these (see tip)
/etc/cron.weekly- Scripts placed here will run every 7 days, based on the calendar day of the last run time (see tip)
/etc/cron.monthly- Scripts placed here will run monthly based on the calendar day of the last run time (see tip)
These are likely to be run at similar (but not exactly the same) times every day, week, and month. For more exact running times, see the @options below.
Provided you are good with just letting the system auto-run your scripts, and allowing them to run sometime during the specified time, it simplifies the automation of tasks.
There is no rule that says a server administrator cannot use the randomized run times which
anacron uses to run scripts in the "dot" directories. The use case for this would be for a script that is not time sensitive.
Create your own
If the automated, randomized times do not work well in For Workstations above, and the scheduled times in the For Servers above, you can create your own. In this example, the assumption is you are doing this as the root user. see Assumptions To do this, type the following:
This will pull up root user's
crontab as it exists at this moment in your chosen editor, and might look something like this. Read this commented version, as it has descriptions of each field that you will use next:
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
# and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any').
# Notice that tasks will be started based on the cron's system
# daemon's notion of time and timezones.
# Output of the crontab jobs (including errors) is sent through
# email to the user the crontab file belongs to (unless redirected).
# For example, you can run a backup of all your user accounts
# at 5 a.m every week with:
# 0 5 * * 1 tar -zcf /var/backups/home.tgz /home/
# For more information see the manual pages of crontab(5) and cron(8)
# m h dom mon dow command
Notice that this particular
crontab file has some of its own documentation built-in. That is not always the case. When modifying a
crontab on a container or minimalist operating system, the
crontab will be an empty file unless an entry is in it.
Assume that you have a backup script that you want to run at 10 PM at night. The
crontab uses a 24 hour clock, this would be 22:00. Assume that you backup script is "backup" and that it is currently in the /usr/local/sbin directory.
Remember that this script needs to also be executable (
chmod +x) in order for the
cron to run it.
To list the present jobs running
To list all jobs created by user
crontab -l -u <username>
To add the job, you:
crontab stands for "cron table" and the format of the file is, in fact, a loose table layout. Now that you are in the
crontab, go to the bottom of the file and add your entry. If you use
vi as your default system editor, you will do this with the following keys:
Now that you are at the bottom of the file, insert a line and enter a brief comment to describe what is going on with your entry. You do this by adding a "#" to the beginning of the line:
# Backing up the system every night at 10PM
Hit ENTER. You should still be in the insert mode, so the next step is to add your entry. As shown in our empty commented
crontab (above) this is m for minutes, h for hours, dom for day of month, mon for month, and dow for day of week.
To run our backup script every day at 10:00, the entry looks like this:
00 22 * * * /usr/local/sbin/backup
This says run the script at 10 PM, every day of the month, every month, and every day of the week. This is a simplistic example and things can get quite complicated when you need specifics.
The @options for
Another way to run jobs at a strictly scheduled time (i.e., day, week, month, year, and so on.) is to use the @options, which offer the ability to use more natural timing. The @options consist of:
@hourlyruns the script every hour of every day at 0 minutes past the hour (this is exactly the result of placing your script in
@dailyruns the script every day at midnight.
@weeklyruns the script every week at midnight on Sunday.
@monthlyruns the script every month at midnight on the first day of the month.
@yearlyruns the script every year at midnight on the first day of January.
@rebootruns the script on system startup only.
crontab entries bypasses the
anacron system and reverts to the
anacron is installed or not.
For our backup script example, if you use the @daily option to run the backup script at midnight, the entry will look like this:
More complex options¶
So far, the solutions used have been pretty simplistic options, but what about more complex task timings? Say that you want to run your backup script every 10 minutes during the day (probably not a practical thing to do, but hey, this is an example!). To do this your crontab is:
*/10 * * * * /usr/local/sbin/backup
What if you wanted to run the backup every 10 minutes, but only on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday?:
*/10 * * * 1,3,5 /usr/local/sbin/backup
What about every 10 minutes every day except Saturday and Sunday?:
*/10 * * * 1-5 /usr/local/sbin/backup
In the table, the commas let you specify individual entries within a field, and the dash lets you specify a range of values within a field. This is true for any of the fields, and can be true for many fields at the same time. As you can see, things can get pretty complicated.
When determining when to run a script, you need to take time and plan it out, particularly if the criteria are complex.
The cron/crontab system is a powerful tool for the Rocky Linux systems administrator or desktop user. It allows you to automate tasks and scripts so that you do not have to remember to run them manually. More complex examples are here:
- For machines that are not on 24 hours a day, explore anacron - Automating commands.
- For a concise description of
cronprocesses, check out cronie - Timed Tasks
While the basics are not difficult, the options can be more complex. For more on
crontab head up to the crontab manual page. On most systems, you can also enter
man crontab for additional command details. You can also do a web search for "crontab" which will give you a wealth of results to help you fine-tune your
Author: Steven Spencer
Contributors: Ezequiel Bruni, Ganna Zhyrnova