Automating Processes with
- A machine running Rocky Linux
- Some comfort with modifying configuration files from the command-line using your favorite editor (
viis used here)
- Basic knowledge of bash, python, or other scripting/programming tools, and the desire to have a script run automatically
- That you are either running as the root user or have switched to root with
(You can run certain scripts in your own directories as your own user. In this case, switching to root is not necessary.)
- We assume that you're pretty cool.
Linux provides the cron system, a time-based job scheduler, for automating processes. It's simple and yet quite powerful. Want a script or program to run every day at 5 PM? This is where you set that up.
The crontab is essentially a list where users add their own automated tasks and jobs, and it has a number of options that can simplify things even further. This document will explore some of these. It's a good refresher for those with some experience, and new users can add the
cron system to their repertoire.
anacron is discussed briefly here in reference to the
cron "dot" directories.
anacron is run by
cron, and is advantageous for machines that are not up all the time, such as workstations and laptops. The reason for this is that while
cron runs jobs on a schedule, if the machine is off when the job is scheduled, the job does not run. With
anacron the job is picked up and run when the machine is on again, even if the scheduled run was in the past.
anacron though, uses a more randomized approach to running tasks where the timing is not exact. This makes sense for workstations and laptops, but not so much for servers. This can be a problem for things like server backups, for instance, that need to run at a specific time. That's where
cron continues to provide the best solution for server administrators. All that being said, server administrators and workstation or laptop users can gain something from both approaches. You can easily mix and match based on your needs. For more information on
anacron see anacron - Automating commands.
Starting Easy - The
cron Dot Directories¶
Built into every Linux system for many versions now, the
cron "dot" directories help to automate processes quickly. These show up as directories that the
cron system calls based on their naming conventions. They are called differently, however, based on which process is assigned to call them,
cron. The default behavior is to use
anacron, but this can be changed by a server, workstation or laptop administrator.
As stated in the introduction,
cron normally runs
anacron these days to execute scripts in these "dot" directories. You may, though, want to use these "dot" directories on servers as well, and if that is the case, then there are two steps that you can take to make sure that these "dot" directories are run on a strict schedule. To do so, we need to install a package and remove another one:
dnf install cronie-noanacron
dnf remove cronie-anacron
As you might expect, this removes
anacron from the server and reverts to running tasks within the "dot" directories on a strict schedule. This is defined by this file:
/etc/cron.d/dailyjobs, which has the following contents:
# Run the daily, weekly, and monthly jobs if cronie-anacron is not installed SHELL=/bin/bash PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin MAILTO=root # run-parts 02 4 * * * root [ ! -f /etc/cron.hourly/0anacron ] && run-parts /etc/cron.daily 22 4 * * 0 root [ ! -f /etc/cron.hourly/0anacron ] && run-parts /etc/cron.weekly 42 4 1 * * root [ ! -f /etc/cron.hourly/0anacron ] && run-parts /etc/cron.monthly
This translates to the following:
- run scripts in
cron.dailyat 04:02:00 every day.
- run scripts in
cron.weeklyat 04:22:00 on Sunday every week.
- run scripts in
cron.monthlyat 04:42:00 on the first day of every month.
If you want to run scripts on a workstation or laptop in the
cron "dot" directories, then there is nothing special that you need to do. Simply copy your script file into the directory in question, and make sure it is executable. Here are the directories:
/etc/cron.hourly- Scripts placed here will run one minute past the hour every hour. (this is run by
cronregardless of whether
anacronis installed or not)
/etc/cron.daily- Scripts placed here will run every day.
anacronadjusts the timing of these. (see tip)
/etc/cron.weekly- Scripts placed here will run every 7 days, based on the calendar day of the last run time. (see tip)
/etc/cron.monthly- Scripts placed here will run monthly based on the calendar day of the last run time. (see tip)
These are likely to be run at similar (but not exactly the same) times every day, week, and month. For more exact running times, see the @options below.
So provided you're alright with just letting the system auto-run your scripts, and allowing them to run sometime during the specified period, then it makes it very easy to automate tasks.
There is no rule that says a server administrator cannot use the randomized run times which
anacron uses to run scripts in the "dot" directories. The use case for this would be for a script that is not time sensitive.
Create Your Own
Of course, if the automated, randomized times don't work well in For Workstations above, and the scheduled times in the For Servers above, then you can create your own. In this example, we are assuming you are doing this as root. see Assumptions To do this, type the following:
This will pull up root user's
crontab as it exists at this moment in your chosen editor, and may look something like this. Go ahead and read through this commented version, as it contains descriptions of each field that we will be using next:
# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron. # # Each task to run has to be defined through a single line # indicating with different fields when the task will be run # and what command to run for the task # # To define the time you can provide concrete values for # minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon), # and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any'). # # Notice that tasks will be started based on the cron's system # daemon's notion of time and timezones. # # Output of the crontab jobs (including errors) is sent through # email to the user the crontab file belongs to (unless redirected). # cron # For example, you can run a backup of all your user accounts # at 5 a.m every week with: # 0 5 * * 1 tar -zcf /var/backups/home.tgz /home/ # # For more information see the manual pages of crontab(5) and cron(8) # # m h dom mon dow command
Notice that this particular
crontab file has some of its own documentation built-in. That isn't always the case. When modifying a
crontab on a container or minimalist operating system, the
crontab will be an empty file unless an entry has already been placed in it.
Let's assume that we have a backup script that we want to run at 10 PM at night. The
crontab uses a 24 hour clock, so this would be 22:00. Let's assume that the backup script is called "backup" and that it is currently in the /usr/local/sbin directory.
Remember that this script needs to also be executable (
chmod +x) in order for the
cron to run it.
To add the job, we would:
crontab stands for "cron table" and the format of the file is, in fact, a loose table layout. Now that we are in the
crontab, go to the bottom of the file and add your new entry. If you are using
vi as your default system editor, then this is done with the following keys:
Shift : $
Now that you are at the bottom of the file, insert a line and type a brief comment to describe what is going on with your entry. This is done by adding a "#" to the beginning of the line:
# Backing up the system every night at 10PM
Now hit enter. You should still be in the insert mode, so the next step is to add your entry. As shown in our empty commented
crontab (above) this is m for minutes, h for hours, dom for day of month, mon for month, and dow for day of week.
To run our backup script every day at 10:00, the entry would look like this:
00 22 * * * /usr/local/sbin/backup
This says run the script at 10 PM, every day of the month, every month, and every day of the week. Obviously, this is a pretty simple example and things can get quite complicated when you need specifics.
The @options for
Another way to run jobs at a strictly scheduled time (i.e., day, week, month, year, etc.) is to use the @options, which offer the ability to use more natural timing. The @options consist of:
@hourlyruns the script every hour of every day at 0 minutes past the hour. (this is exactly the result of placing your script in
@dailyruns the script every day at midnight.
@weeklyruns the script every week at midnight on Sunday.
@monthlyruns the script every month at midnight on the first day of the month.
@yearlyruns the script every year at midnight on the first day of January.
@rebootruns the script on system startup only.
crontab entries bypasses the
anacron system and reverts to the
anacron is installed or not.
For our backup script example, if we use the @daily option to run the backup script at midnight, the entry would look like this:
More Complex Options¶
So far, everything we have talked about has had pretty simple options, but what about the more complex task timings? Let's say that you want to run your backup script every 10 minutes during the day (probably not a very practical thing to do, but hey, this is an example!). To do this you would write:
*/10 * * * * /usr/local/sbin/backup
What if you wanted to run the backup every 10 minutes, but only on Monday, Wednesday and Friday?:
*/10 * * * 1,3,5 /usr/local/sbin/backup
What about every 10 minutes every day except Saturday and Sunday?:
*/10 * * * 1-5 /usr/local/sbin/backup
In the table, the commas let you specify individual entries within a field, while the dash lets you specify a range of values within a field. This can happen in any of the fields, and on multiple fields at the same time. As you can see, things can get pretty complicated.
When determining when to run a script, you need to take time and plan it out, particularly if the criteria are complex.
The cron/crontab system is a very powerful tool for the Rocky Linux systems administrator or desktop user. It can allow you to automate tasks and scripts so that you don't have to remember to run them manually. There are more examples provided here:
- For machines that are not on 24 hours a day, explore anacron - Automating commands.
- For a concise description of
cronprocesses, check out cronie - Timed Tasks
While the basics are pretty easy, you can get a lot more complex. For more information on
crontab head up to the crontab manual page. On most systems, you can also enter
man crontab for additional command details. You can also simply do a web search for "crontab" which will give you a wealth of results to help you fine-tune your
Author: Steven Spencer
Contributors: Ezequiel Bruni