rsync needs to perform user authentication before data synchronization. There are two protocol methods for authentication: SSH protocol and rsync protocol (the default port of rsync protocol is 873)
- SSH protocol verification login method: use SSH protocol as the basis for user identity authentication (that is, use the system user and password of GNU/Linux itself for verification), and then perform data synchronization.
- rsync protocol verification login method: use rsync protocol for user identity authentication (non-GNU/Linux system users, similar to vsftpd virtual users), and then perform data synchronization.
Before the specific demonstration of rsync synchronization, you need to use the
rsync command. In Rocky Linux 8, the rsync rpm package is installed by default, and the version is 3.1.3-12, as follows:
[root@Rocky ~]# rpm -qa|grep rsync rsync-3.1.3-12.el8.x86_64
Basic format: rsync [options] original location target location Commonly used options: -a: archive mode, recursive and preserves the attributes of the file object, which is equivalent to -rlptgoD (without -H, -A, -X) -v: Display detailed information about the synchronization process -z: compress when transferring files -H: Keep hard link files -A: retain ACL permissions -X: retain chattr permissions -r: Recursive mode, including all files in the directory and subdirectories -l: still reserved for symbolic link files -p: Permission to retain file attributes -t: time to retain file attributes -g: retain the group belonging to the file attribute (only for super users) -o: retain the owner of the file attributes (only for super users) -D: Keep device files and other special files
The author's personal use:
rsync -avz original location target location
|Rocky Linux 8(Server)||192.168.100.4/24|
You can use Fedora 34 to upload and download
graph LR; RockyLinux8-->|pull/download|Fedora34; Fedora34-->|push/upload|RockyLinux8;
You can also use Rocky Linux 8 to upload and download
graph LR; RockyLinux8-->|push/upload|Fedora34; Fedora34-->|pull/download|RockyLinux8;
Demonstration based on SSH protocol¶
Here, both Rocky Linux 8 and Fedora 34 use the root user to log in. Fedora 34 is the client and Rocky Linux 8 is the server.
Since it is based on the SSH protocol, we first create a user in the server:
[root@Rocky ~]# useradd testrsync [root@Rocky ~]# passwd testrsync
On the client side, we pull/download it, and the file on the server is /rsync/aabbcc
[root@fedora ~]# rsync -avz email@example.com:/rsync/aabbcc /root firstname.lastname@example.org ' s password: receiving incremental file list aabbcc sent 43 bytes received 85 bytes 51.20 bytes/sec total size is 0 speedup is 0.00 [root@fedora ~]# cd [root@fedora ~]# ls aabbcc
If the server's SSH port is not the default 22, you can specify the port in a similar way---
rsync -avz -e 'ssh -p [port]'.
[root@fedora ~]# touch fedora [root@fedora ~]# rsync -avz /root/* email@example.com:/rsync/ firstname.lastname@example.org ' s password: sending incremental file list anaconda-ks.cfg fedora rsync: mkstemp " /rsync/.anaconda-ks.cfg.KWf7JF " failed: Permission denied (13) rsync: mkstemp " /rsync/.fedora.fL3zPC " failed: Permission denied (13) sent 760 bytes received 211 bytes 277.43 bytes/sec total size is 883 speedup is 0.91 rsync error: some files/attrs were not transferred (see previous errors) (code 23) at main.c(1330) [sender = 3.2.3]
Prompt permission denied, how to deal with it?
First check the permissions of the /rsync/ directory. Obviously, there is no "w" permission. We can use
setfacl to give permission:
[root@Rocky ~ ] # ls -ld /rsync/ drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 November 2 15:05 /rsync/
[root@Rocky ~ ] # setfacl -mu:testrsync:rwx /rsync/ [root@Rocky ~ ] # getfacl /rsync/ getfacl: Removing leading ' / ' from absolute path names # file: rsync/ # owner: root # group: root user::rwx user:testrsync:rwx group::rx mask::rwx other::rx
Try again, success!
[root@fedora ~ ] # rsync -avz /root/* email@example.com:/rsync/ firstname.lastname@example.org ' s password: sending incremental file list anaconda-ks.cfg fedora sent 760 bytes received 54 bytes 180.89 bytes/sec total size is 883 speedup is 1.08
Author: tianci li
Contributors: Steven Spencer, Ganna Zhyrnova