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Generating SSL Keys - Let's Encrypt

Prerequisites & Assumptions

  • Comfort with the command line
  • Familiarity with securing web sites with SSL certificates is a plus
  • Knowledge of command line text editors (this example uses vi)
  • An already running web server open to the world on port 80 (http)
  • Familiarity with ssh (secure shell) and the ability to access your server with ssh
  • All commands assume that you are either the root user or that you have used sudo to gain root access.

Introduction

One of the most popular ways to secure a web site, currently, is using Let's Encrypt SSL certificates, which are also free.

These are actual certificates, not self-signed or snake oil, etc., so they are great for a low-budget security solution. This document will walk you through the process of installing and using Let's Encrypt certificates on a Rocky Linux web server.

Installation

To do the next steps, use ssh to log into your server. If your server's fully qualified DNS name was www.myhost.com, then you would use:

ssh -l root www.myhost.com

Or, if you must access your server as an unprivileged user first. Use your username:

ssh -l username www.myhost.com

And then:

sudo -s

You will need your sudo user's credentials in this case to gain access to the system as root.

Let's Encrypt uses a package called certbot which needs to be installed via the EPEL repositories. Add those first:

dnf install epel-release

Then, just install the appropriate packages, depending on whether you're using Apache or Nginx as your web server. For Apache that's:

dnf install certbot python3-certbot-apache

For Nginx, just change out one... partial word?

dnf install certbot python3-certbot-nginx

You can always install both server modules if necessary, of course.

Note

An earlier version of this guide required the snap package version of certbot, as it was found to be necessary at the time. The RPM versions have been re-tested recently, and are working now.

Getting The Let's Encrypt Certificate for the Apache Server

There are two ways to retrieve your Let's Encrypt certificate, either using the command to modify the http configuration file for you, or to just retrieve the certificate. If you are using the procedure for a multi-site setup suggested for one or more sites in the procedure Apache Web Server Multi-Site Setup, then you will only want to retrieve your certificate.

We are assuming that you are using this procedure so we will only retrieve the certificate. If you are running a standalone web server using the default configuration, you can retrieve the certificate and modify the configuration file in one step using:

certbot --apache

That's really the easiest way to get things done. However, sometimes you want to take a more manual approach, and just want to grab the certificate. To retrieve the certificate only, use this command:

certbot certonly --apache

Both commands will generate a set of prompts that you will need to answer. The first is to give an email address for important information:

Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Plugins selected: Authenticator apache, Installer apache
Enter email address (used for urgent renewal and security notices)
 (Enter 'c' to cancel): yourusername@youremaildomain.com

The next asks you to read and accept the terms of the subscriber agreement. Once you have read the agreement answer 'Y' to continue:

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Please read the Terms of Service at
https://letsencrypt.org/documents/LE-SA-v1.2-November-15-2017.pdf. You must
agree in order to register with the ACME server. Do you agree?
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(Y)es/(N)o:

The next is a request to share your email with the Electronic Frontier Foundation. Answer 'Y' or 'N' as is your preference:

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Would you be willing, once your first certificate is successfully issued, to
share your email address with the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a founding
partner of the Let's Encrypt project and the non-profit organization that
develops Certbot? We'd like to send you email about our work encrypting the web,
EFF news, campaigns, and ways to support digital freedom.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
(Y)es/(N)o:

The next prompt asks you which domain you want the certificate for. It should display a domain in the listing based on your running web server. If so, enter the number next to the domain that you are getting the certificate for. In this case there is only one option ('1'):

Which names would you like to activate HTTPS for?
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1: yourdomain.com
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Select the appropriate numbers separated by commas and/or spaces, or leave input
blank to select all options shown (Enter 'c' to cancel):

If all goes well, you should receive the following message:

Requesting a certificate for yourdomain.com
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for yourdomain.com
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges
Subscribe to the EFF mailing list (email: yourusername@youremaildomain.com).

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/yourdomain.com/fullchain.pem
   Your key file has been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/yourdomain.com/privkey.pem
   Your certificate will expire on 2021-07-01. To obtain a new or
   tweaked version of this certificate in the future, simply run
   certbot again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your
   certificates, run "certbot renew"
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le

The Site Configuration - https

Applying the configuration file to our site is slightly different than if we were using a purchased SSL certificate from another provider (and if we didn't let certbot do it automatically).

The certificate and chain file are included in a single PEM (Privacy Enhanced Mail) file. This is a common format for all certificate files now, so even though it has "Mail" in the reference, it is just a type of certificate file. To illustrate the configuration file, we will show it in it's entirety and then describe what is happening:

<VirtualHost *:80>
        ServerName www.yourdomain.com
        ServerAdmin username@rockylinux.org
        Redirect / https://www.yourdomain.com/
</VirtualHost>
<Virtual Host *:443>
        ServerName www.yourdomain.com
        ServerAdmin username@rockylinux.org
        DocumentRoot /var/www/sub-domains/com.yourdomain.www/html
        DirectoryIndex index.php index.htm index.html
        Alias /icons/ /var/www/icons/
        # ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/www/sub-domains/com.yourdomain.www/cgi-bin/

    CustomLog "/var/log/httpd/com.yourdomain.www-access_log" combined
    ErrorLog  "/var/log/httpd/com.yourdomain.www-error_log"

        SSLEngine on
        SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3 -TLSv1
        SSLHonorCipherOrder on
        SSLCipherSuite EECDH+ECDSA+AESGCM:EECDH+aRSA+AESGCM:EECDH+ECDSA+SHA384:EECDH+ECDSA+SHA256:EECDH+aRSA+SHA384
:EECDH+aRSA+SHA256:EECDH+aRSA+RC4:EECDH:EDH+aRSA:RC4:!aNULL:!eNULL:!LOW:!3DES:!MD5:!EXP:!PSK:!SRP:!DSS

        SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/yourdomain.com/fullchain.pem
        SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/yourdomain.com/privkey.pem
        SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/yourdomain.com/fullchain.pem

        <Directory /var/www/sub-domains/com.yourdomain.www/html>
                Options -ExecCGI -Indexes
                AllowOverride None

                Order deny,allow
                Deny from all
                Allow from all

                Satisfy all
        </Directory>
</VirtualHost>

Here's what's happening above. You may want to review the Apache Web Server Multi-Site Setup to see the differences in the application of an SSL purchased from another provider and the Let's Encrypt certificate:

  • Even though port 80 (standard http) is listening, we are redirecting all traffic to port 443 (https)
  • SSLEngine on - simply says to use SSL
  • SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3 -TLSv1 - says to use all available protocols, except those that have been found to have vulnerabilities. You should research periodically which protocols are currently acceptable for use.
  • SSLHonorCipherOrder on - this deals with the next line regarding the cipher suites, and says to deal with them in the order that they are given. This is another area where you should review the cipher suites that you want to include periodically
  • SSLCertificateFile - this is the PEM file, that contains the site certificate AND the intermediate certificate. We still need the 'SSLCertificateChainFile' line in our configuration, but it will simply specify the same PEM file again.
  • SSLCertificateKeyFile - the PEM file for the private key, generated with the certbot request.
  • SSLCertificateChainFile - the certificate from your certificate provider, often called the intermediate certificate, in this case exactly like the 'SSLCertificateFile' location above.

Once you have made all of your changes, simply restart httpd and if it starts test your site to make sure you now have a valid certificate file showing. If so, you are ready to move on to the next step: automation.

Using Certbot With Nginx

A quick note: using certbot with Nginx is pretty much the same as with Apache. Here's the short, short version of the guide:

Run this command to get started:

certbot --nginx

You'll be asked a couple of questions as shown above, including your email address, and which site you want to get a certificate for. Assuming you have at least one site configured (with a domain name pointing at the server), you'll see a list like this:

1. yourwebsite.com
2. subdomain.yourwebsite.com

If you have more than one site, just press the number that corresponds to the site you want a certificate for.

The rest of the text you'll see is awful similar to what's above. The results will be a bit different, of course. If you have a dead-simple Nginx config file that looks like this:

server {
    server_name yourwebsite.com;

    listen 80;
    listen [::]:80;

    location / {
        root   /usr/share/nginx/html;
        index  index.html index.htm;
    }
}

After certbot gets through with it, it'll look like a bit this:

server {
    server_name  yourwebsite.com;

    listen 443 ssl; # managed by Certbot
    listen [::]:443 ssl; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/yourwebsite.com/fullchain.pem; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/yourwebsite.com/privkey.pem; # managed by Certbot
    include /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-nginx.conf; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_dhparam /etc/letsencrypt/ssl-dhparams.pem; # managed by Certbot

    location / {
        root   /usr/share/nginx/html;
        index  index.html index.htm;
    }
}

server {
    if ($host = yourwebsite.com) {
        return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
    } # managed by Certbot


  listen 80;
  listen [::]:80;
  server_name yourwebsite.com;
    return 404; # managed by Certbot
}

Depending on a couple of things (for example, if you're using Nginx as a reverse proxy), you may need to dive into the new config file to fix up a few things that certbot won't handle perfectly on its own.

Or write your own config file the hard way.

Automating Let's Encrypt Certificate Renewal

The beauty of installing certbot is that the Let's Encrypt certificate will be automatically renewed. There is no need to create a process to do this. We do need to test the renewal with:

certbot renew --dry-run

When you run this command, you'll get a nice output showing the renewal process:

Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/yourdomain.com.conf
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cert not due for renewal, but simulating renewal for dry run
Plugins selected: Authenticator apache, Installer apache
Account registered.
Simulating renewal of an existing certificate for yourdomain.com
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for yourdomain.com
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
new certificate deployed with reload of apache server; fullchain is
/etc/letsencrypt/live/yourdomain.com/fullchain.pem
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Congratulations, all simulated renewals succeeded:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/yourdomain.com/fullchain.pem (success)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

The certbot documentation tells you in their step number 8, that the automatic renewal process could be in a couple of different spots, depending on your system. For a Rocky Linux install, you are going to find the process by using:

systemctl list-timers

Which gives you a list of processes, one of which will be for certbot:

Sat 2021-04-03 07:12:00 UTC  14h left   n/a                          n/a          snap.certbot.renew.timer     snap.certbot.renew.service

Conclusions

Let's Encrypt SSL certificates are yet another option for securing your web site with an SSL. Once installed, the system provides automatic renewal of certificates and will encrypt traffic to your web site.

It should be noted that Let's Encrypt certificates are used for standard DV (Domain Validation) certificates. They cannot be used for OV (Organization Validation) or EV (Extended Validation) certificates.


Dernière mise à jour: March 28, 2022

Author: Steven Spencer

Contributors: wsoyinka, Antoine Le Morvan, Ezequiel Bruni

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